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UNIX and Linux Operating Systems


Emergence of UNIX and Linux UNIX and Linux Server Operating Systems Linux in the Mainstream
Microsoft Software: Competition and Integration Google Android and Chrome Operating Systems UNIX and Linux Training by SYS-ED
Quality UNIX and Linux Training UNIX and Linux Training Programs UNIX and Linux Training Services

UNIX and Linux
Course Schedule

Web Servers

Android and Chrome are registered trademarks of Google Corporation.
CentOS Linux is a registered trademark of the CentOS Project.
Red Hat is a registered trademark of Red Hat, Inc.
Solaris is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems and Oracle Corporation.
SUSE is a registered trademark of Micro Focus and Attachmate Companies.

Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Ltd.
Tux, the Linux mascot, was created by Larry Ewing using the initial version of GIMP.

Courseware for Teaching - UNIX- and Linux-variant Training
Courseware for Teaching

Cloud Programming - 2018
Open Source Software GSA Submission


Commercial UNIX- and Open Source Linux- Variants

Emergence of UNIX and Linux

UNIX and Linux operating systems have emerged as a platform capable of supporting and being used on a variety of hardware architectures. Commercial, open source, and no-cost distributions of UNIX and Linux provide cost control and flexibility in long term planning. The first generations of the UNIX operating system in the early 1980's were used primarily as servers in business enterprise and as workstations in academic and engineering environments. It took years for UNIX to gain acceptance in commercial use and this breakthrough resulted from high reliability and price/performance advantages, not the availability of applications. 

  UNIX-variant Operating Systems   Linux-variant Operating Systems  
  UNIX-variant Operating Systems   Linux-variant Operating Systems  
Specialized Platform Base OS - Servers Base OS - Databases Base OS - Middleware Base OS - Web Hosting
Desktop OS Mobile Devices - OS Scripting Platform Application Development Web App Development
System Administration Virtual Hosting Services Message Servers Communications Services Mail Services

Ultimately, this led to broad adoption of RISC/UNIX systems. Both Hewlett-Packard and IBM arrived at the decision to develop and extend a UNIX-variant operating systems for utilization on their own proprietary hardware platforms. Sun Microsystems developed Solaris-UNIX to run on both its SPARC hardware and other types of hardware, including x86 servers and PCs. POSIX was developed to provide standardization across the UNIX-variants. Over the past decade, Linux deployments have to a significant degree been replacing UNIX in system infrastructure software. The Linux kernel is used in the leading Linux-variant operating systems: Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

IBM Corporation's strategy extends its mainframe computing strengths in security and always-on availability and makes extensive use of both UNIX and Linux. Improvements in performance and energy efficiency aside, the most significant change with the new IBM mainframe hardware is data center integration. This design provides for blending tasks and parceling out parts of a complex application. The data and transaction is managed on the mainframe with the real-time processing performed by a UNIX or Linux computer system.

UNIX and Linux Server Operating Systems

All versions of UNIX combined - IBM AIX, HP-UX, and Oracle Solaris have approximately 10% of the market share. Marketing studies indicate that IBM's AIX UNIX is currently the most reliable and highest rated server operating system. Linux market share represents approximately 30% of the installed base. Linux overall reliability has improved substantially. The three leading distributions, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux, and Ubuntu Linux, score high in reliability and have achieved near parity with UNIX distributions. Microsoft Windows Servers account for about 60% of the worldwide server operating system market. There is far less disparity in the number and severity of unplanned outages and actual downtime that organization's experience on standard UNIX, Linux, and MS Windows platforms. 1

CETi technology partners report that most organizations utilize commercial distributions in combination with free no cost distributions of Linux.

Linux in the Mainstream

The selection and utilization of the Linux operating system has resulted from 1- reliable code, 2- low cost, 3- enhancements to the x86 server, workstation, and laptop hardware. Linux has become a mainstream solution for supporting deployments of business-critical workloads and business-oriented applications across a variety of hardware architectures. The initial Linux operating system incrementally replaced the infrastructure workloads being performed by UNIX or MS Windows servers. Linux has a substantial and growing use as a base platform for servers, database, middleware, and web application services.

Operational infrastructure and client support requirements have led to implementations of Linux by leading hardware and software companies such as Amazon, eBay, Google, Motorola, and Twitter. These companies are also investing in Linux to develop cloud computing operations. Dell and Hewlett-Packard market Linux-based desktop and laptop computers. Hewlett-Packard also has invested in HP-Linux and open-sourced its Linux-based webOS mobile operating system. Application software providers and ISV: Independent Software Vendorís support the Linux platform and promote deployment.

Market studies project a steady growth for Linux; it is being driven by the reliability of Linux-variant server and workstation operating system code, data center virtualization, cloud computing operations, and software which allows Linux to run Microsoft applications. The shift in workloads to Linux operating system deployments will continue.

Microsoft Software: Competition and Integration

Microsoft has been in a longstanding competition for migrating UNIX to its MS Windows Server and Windows family operating systems. The Microsoft UNIX migration readily can be applied to migrating Linux-variant operating systems. Microsoft has extended the featureset of the Windows family operating system, Windows Server 2008/2012/2016, SharePoint Server, and PowerShell for integration with the leading Linux-variants: Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu. SUSE has been designated by Microsoft as its preferred Linux-variant. Linux administrators can use MS Windows Server Group Policy to expedite deployments and patch installations on SUSE and other Linux-variant operating systems.

Google Android and Chrome Operating Systems

The immense growth of mobile computing devices - smartphones and tablets also is driving the adoption of the Linux operating system. Alphabet/Google Corporation has brought to market two Linux-based operating systems: Android and Chrome. The Google strategy is based upon the assumption that the operating systems address different markets: Android for mobile computing devices and Chrome for software as a service and cloud computing.

Google acquired the Android operating system from Android, Inc. It is a Linux-variant operating system for use on mobile computing devices; it is a major component in the Google Corporation strategy to provide a unified mobile world. Android is open source software and has been made available to third party smartphone hardware manufacturers. This approach has served to make Android the leading operating system for smartphones at the low to middle range of the market. Android also has been adopted as the base platform for specialized Amazon and Barnes and Noble tablet devices and e-readers. In 2011, Google acquired Motorola Mobility, a maker of Android smartphones and tablets. This provides Google with the patents and hardware manufacturing capability to emulate portions of the Apple business model by designing its own models and integrating the software with the firmware. Its goal has been to compete with the Apple iPhone and iPad with improved Android smartphones and tablets. Derived from the OS X operating system used on Apple computers, the iOS is a UNIX mobile operating system used on iPhone and iPad devices.

The Chrome operating system has been developed from a version of Ubuntu-Linux by Google. The target audience for Chrome is computer users spending most of their time on the Internet. Its functionality has Internet applications and web apps executing through a web browser. Google executives have suggested that over time the two systems will likely converge. However, the two operating systems have been built from different code bases. Despite the growing convergence of the devices, this will issue become more problematic as new hardware is brought to market.

UNIX and Linux Training by SYS-ED

SYS-ED knows UNIX and Linux. And equally as important, we know how to teach UNIX and Linux. Our consultants were among the original cadre of UNIX proponents and practitioners.2  We developed and taught C programs to a generation of programmers, were involved with the superset of functions which became C++, and wrote handouts and instructor guides for X Windows and Motif interfaces.

SYS-ED teaches:

  • Scripting in UNIX- and Linux- variant platforms.
  • UNIX and Linux programming and utilities courses for application developers: C, Bourne Shell, and Korn Shell.
  • Migration from a Microsoft operating system and UNIX operating systems to Linux.
  • Oracle database, WebLogic Server, and Java application development on UNIX-Solaris and Linux-variant operating systems.
  • DB2 and WebSphere MQ on both UNIX- and Linux-variant base operating system platforms in IBM mainframe and distributed environments.
  • Linux in conjunction with Google Android and cross platform web app development.

In UNIX and Linux courses, students learn by doing: installation, configuration, administration, problem resolution, and scripting. After a course is over, students are welcome to ask questions which come up back on the job. Specialized courses and integrated programs can be conducted on-site at the client location.

New courses are being developed for teaching Linux as a base platform and component in virtualization and cloud computing infrastructure.


Reference material which explains and demonstrates is fundamental to an effective training experience. The consensus is that the documentation provided with open source software does not provide quality and completeness comparable to commercial software. In order to address this shortcoming and the scarcity of up to date industry standard UNIX and Linux textbooks, SYS-ED reviews information in the public domain distributed by purveyors of open source software, international standards committees, and software companies. An independent analysis of white papers, benchmarks, and software updates is performed and SYS-ED develops its own training aids and modular documentation. Subject matter selectively is incorporated into student handouts. 3

In conjunction with presenting an instructor-led course at the client location, courseware is organized for future use in a web-based infrastructure and delivery medium.

Qualifying a Training Assignment

SYS-ED will not accept a UNIX or Linux training assignment without a consultation with the prospective client organization. The background of the employees to be trained, operating environment, documented standards, and project specifications are examined to select the code snippets, examples, skeleton programs, and hands-on exercises. And when not confident that a superior training outcome can be provided, SYS-ED politely will turn down an assignment.

Courseware for Teaching

The courseware used in SYS-ED courses consists of modular extensible student handouts, training aids, and industry-specific examples and exercises. At the client discretion an industry standard textbook and accompanying presentation slides can be utilized. The CETi knowledge base aggregates and analyzes information in the public domain. It also is a service for reviewing and answering questions. Content selectively is added to courseware.

Web-based Training Services
UNIX - Solaris
UNIX Programming

Red Hat Linux
SUSE Linux
Ubuntu Linux
Google Application Development
SYS-ED/New York Schedule and Content Delivery Selection
Web-based Training Services Courseware as Learning Center Selection of Delivery Medium

In relation to a UNIX-variant operating system, Linux can provide a lower total cost of ownership and better return on investment. Migration to Linux typically allows for operation with fewer CPUs and results in annual savings on software database licenses. There are Linux-variants which can be used on the same hardware platform as an existing UNIX base operating system. This can be a significant advantage when managing virtualization and logical partitioning across both UNIX and Linux operating system platforms. Remaining on a hardware platform also removes issues associated with endianness.


UNIX-variant Operating Systems

  Apple Corporation  
  Mac OSX  
  Oracle Corporation  
  Solaris - UNIX  
  IBM Corporation  
  z/OS System Services  
  OpenBSD Project  
  HP Enterprise  
  HP Inc.  
  Free BSD Project  

Most UNIX operating systems are a complete operating system with the code, applications, and utilities provided by a single source or vendor; there is a commercial license with contractual requirements, charges, and restrictions. There are indications that changes may be occurring with the UNIX software model; OpenSolaris UNIX is available free of charge. The Open Group manages the UNIX trademark licensing program.

IBM AIX, Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, and Oracle Sun Solaris are the leading UNIX operating systems; each has hardware platforms. IBM and Oracle UNIX operating systems were designed initially to be integrated with product line strategies. There are significant differences in the kernel, configuration, process management, virtualization, performance, and tuning. From an operational standpoint, there can be a degree of hardware vendor lock-in associated with the UNIX operating system.

A firewall is not a standard inclusion in the UNIX operating system; it may be necessary to purchase third party software. Generic UNIX tools used for backing up the system portion of data will not work on Linux distributions. UNIX and Linux have different sets of tools for backing up data to tape and other backup media. Although there are common tools used in both operating systems, problems have been reported when using generic UNIX/Linux utilities such as tar and cpio between different platforms. Both UNIX and Linux provide a system initialization script; however, they are located in different directories.

The Linux kernel and operating system has been built upon and coded from the UNIX architecture and code base. It was written by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a dispersed team of programmers. Developed based upon open source principles, Linux provides modularity and independence from a commercial software vendor for an organizational enterprise to establish and manage its own operating system deployment and patches.


Linux-variant Operating Systems

  Micro Focus / Attachmate  
  SUSE Linux  
  SUSE Linux Enterprise  
  Google Corporation  
  Android Operating System  
  Chrome Operating System  
  Canonical Ltd.  
  Ubuntu Linux Desktop  
  Ubuntu Linux Server  
  AWS: Amazon Web Services  
  Intel and Others  
  Tizen - Linux-variant  
  Red Hat, Inc.  
  Red Hat Linux  
  CentOs Project  
  CentOS Linux  
  BarnesandNoble.com Inc.  

Linux distributions include a: 1- GUI: graphical user interface system 2- GNU utilities cp, mv, ls, date, bash, etc. 3- Installation and management tools 4- GNU C/C++ compilers 5- Editors (vi) 6- A variety of applications such as Firefox web browser and OpenOffice suite. Linux is available for download free of charge; it also is selectively redistributed under a GNU: General Public License. Linux comes with a open source netfilter/iptables based firewall tool for protecting a server and desktop. The independence of the Linux kernel and its inclusion in the GNU General Public License provides flexibility and alternative Linux-variant base operating system choices for implementation into an existing software infrastructure. Linux can be installed on x-86 desktop and servers, HP Itanium, X64 AMD Opteron-based systems, Sun Ultra SPARC, and IBM Power and mainframe systems.

There is significant free and commercial fee-based community support for the leading Linux-variant distributions: Red Hat and Fedora Linux, SUSE Linux - Micro Focus and Attachmate Companies, Ubuntu Linux - Canonical, and Android mobile device operating system - Google.

Quality UNIX and Linux Training

SYS-ED offers a subset of its UNIX and Linux courses in a web-based learning format. The distance-learning training service is an extension of the SYS-ED schedule, inclusive of courseware and training aids. A distance-learning course is 65% lecture with review questions, examples, workshops, and website support services.

UNIX and Linux Distance-learning Training Services

Enrollment is requires a consultation with the manager sending the employee for the training. The prospective trainee needs to be qualified for the course and service transmission to the client location tested: bandwidth, firewall, base operating system, software requirements, web browser, and set-up of hands-on machine exercises. SYS-ED reserves the right to deny enrollment in its courses.

SYS-ED has been conducting courses in the public domain since 1980; however, there have been changes in the laws and regulations governing computer training in the state of New York.The schedule on our websites reflects a projected time frame for licensure with the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision and submission and approval of curriculum.

UNIX and Linux Training Programs

SYS-EDís UNIX and Linux training programs provide the knowledge and skillset to perform specific tasks.

Linux and UNIX Training Services Utilize open source graphical shells and free open source and low cost alternatives to Microsoft Office: StarOffice, OpenOffice, LibreOffice Suite, and Google G Suite - formerly Google Apps.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Install, configure, and manage scalable web server and infrastructure environments: database, middleware, cloud, and Big Data.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Migrate from UNIX to Linux operating system platforms.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Administration and scripting of tasks with the leading shells - Bourne, Korn, bash, awk, perl, c, tcsh, and MS PowerShell.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Open source application frameworks with a variety of markup and programming languages - JavaScript, PHP, Python, ASP.Net, Java, XML, and others - that can be used with database and development platforms.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Application developers with the fundamental skills and experience to develop UNIX and Linux applications with C/C++ and API's for mobile devices.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Implement and manage virtualization and containerization in the cloud.

The training programs reflect an independent use of commercial and open source software and research of open source projects and standards.

Linux Training Programs IT Demographics - Emerging Trends UNIX Training Programs
Red Hat Linux Web Servers - Scalability
UNIX- and Linux- variants
Internetworking Microsoft, Linux, and UNIX
Migration: Oracle Solaris to Red Hat Linux
Cloud Computing IaaS and PaaS
UNIX and Linux Fundamentals
SUSE Linux UNIX and Linux Scripting and Programming
Ubuntu Linux UNIX Operations and Network Administration - Solaris
Containerization - Linux and Microsoft UNIX Application Development
Mobile Device Platform Development IBM UNIX - System Services and AIX

Course modules from a Linux-variant training program can be substituted or augmented with subject matter topics from the course search engine.

Specialized Training - Linux-variant Platform:
Web Servers, Database, and Programming

Web Server Platforms - Strategic Software

These course titles and subject matter incorporate research and application development from SYS-ED staff and CETi technology partners.

Web Servers and Development Platforms
Apache Web Server GlassFish Web Server Red Hat JBoss Web Server IBM WebSphere Application Server Microsoft Internet Information Server
Oracle Application Server Oracle WebLogic Server IBM WebSphere MQ Java Platform Microsoft NET

Database Platforms
IBM DB2 IBM Transaction Server Microsoft SQL Server Amazon Cloud Microsoft Azure Cloud
Mobile Databases MySQL Oracle SAP - Crystal Reports SAP - Sybase

Web App Development
Android Object API Applications Apple - iPhone and iPad Google - Android Application Development HTML5 for Mobile Devices jQuery Mobile
OData SDK MS Windows Phone Application Development MS Windows: Style Apps Programming (formerly Metro) SAP - Sybase Mobile SDK Sencha Touch

UNIX and Linux Training Services

UNIX and Linux Courses
SYS-ED's UNIX and Linux training is for Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, healthcare providers, software houses, and consulting companies to meet their staffing requirements and acquire specialized UNIX and Linux skillsets. 1

SYS-ED's UNIX and Linux courseware library contains examples, training aids, sample programs, and exercises specific to a UNIX and Linux platform: AIX, Solaris, Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

Teaching is Our Business
Most computer training companies are divisions of large software or consulting companies. Not SYS-ED. Our only goal is to provide UNIX and Linux  training for motivated professionals. This independence allows us to concentrate on teaching.

Our Teachers Know How to Teach
SYS-ED instructors combine teaching skills with broad practical in the UNIX and Linux operating system environments - network administration, web servers, scripting databases, middleware, and programming. After a course, they are available to answer questions.

Enrollment - SYS-ED UNIX and Linux Courses are Not for Everyone
No one is allowed to enroll in a SYS-ED UNIX and Linux course, without a consultation with our Director of Education. We review the operational objectives and project specifications for the organization evaluating whether to send its employee for the training. The employee only is allowed to enroll if they have the background corresponding to the UNIX- and Linux-variant course.

UNIX and Linux Training Distance-learning or at Your Office
SYS-ED UNIX and Linux courses are provided over the Internet through a distance-learning delivery medium or classroom instruction. Client location courses can include the same workshops and case studies as the SYS-ED schedule.

Technology Exchange Websites

SYS-ED's websites compile, organize, and present software specific and established operational categorizations of information technology. They provide a framework for assessing knowledge transfer: web-based training, classroom instruction, courseware, learning paths, and validation assessment.


Footnote 1:
Source - Yankee Group Global Server Operating System Reliability Surveys.

Footnote 2:
David Silverberg and David Shapiro were among the technologist and programmers who evaluated the UNIX operating system and designed and coded C programs. Dave Silverberg was coding programs and reviewing source code and later taught classes at Bell Laboratories. David Shapiro, in conjunction with classmates at Union College and Cornell University, became familiar with the capabilities and potential of low level programming languages and early versions of both UNIX and BASIC.

Footnote 3:
SYS-EDís core UNIX curriculum has been submitted to the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision for review.