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UNIX and Linux Operating Systems


Emergence of UNIX and Linux UNIX and Linux Server Operating Systems Linux in the Mainstream
Microsoft Software: Competition and Integration Google Android and Chrome Operating Systems UNIX and Linux Training by SYS-ED
Distance-learning - UNIX and Linux UNIX and Linux Training Programs Specialized Training

UNIX and Linux
Course Schedule

Web Servers

Android and Chrome are registered trademarks of Google Corporation.
CentOS Linux is a registered trademark of the CentOS Project.
Red Hat is a registered trademark of Red Hat, Inc.
Solaris is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems and Oracle Corporation.
SUSE is a registered trademark of Micro Focus and Attachmate companies.

Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Ltd.
Tux, the Linux mascot, was created by Larry Ewing using the initial version of GIMP.
IBM Db2 and IBM MQ are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation.
Java is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems/Oracle.

Courseware for Teaching - UNIX- and Linux-variant Training
Courseware for Teaching

Cloud Programming
Open Source Software GSA Submission


Commercial UNIX- and Open Source Linux- Variants

Emergence of UNIX and Linux

UNIX and Linux operating systems are platforms capable of supporting and being used on a variety of hardware architectures. Commercial, open source, and no-cost distributions provide cost control and flexibility in long term planning.

  UNIX-variant Operating Systems   Linux-variant Operating Systems  
  UNIX-variant Operating Systems   Linux-variant Operating Systems  
Specialized Platform Base OS - Servers Base OS - Databases Base OS - Middleware Base OS - Web Hosting
Desktop OS Mobile Devices - OS Scripting Platform Application Development Web App Development
System Administration Virtual Hosting Services Message Servers Communications Services Mail Services

UNIX is a multitasking and multiuser operating system used on sizes of computers for managing resources, and communicating with other computer systems, and running programs. The UNIX operating system was developed by researchers needing a set of computing tools for their projects. It allowed a group of people on a project to share selected data and programs while keeping other information private. UNIX was distributed to universities at nominal cost, which contributed to its portability and acceptance. The first generations of the UNIX operating system in the 1980's were used primarily as workstations in academic and engineering environments. It was rewritten in the C language for portability and performance.The CSRG: Computer Systems Research at the University of California at Berkeley made significant additions and changes to UNIX. Their version is the BSD: Berkeley Software Distribution of UNIX; the shorthand name is Berkeley UNIX. The other major version is SVR4: UNIX System V. It descended from development work by AT&T and UNIX System Laboratories. As UNIX was tuned for a specific architecture, the code became less portable, larger, and complex. The UNIX operating system gradually found its way into private industry. The commercialization of the source code became proprietary.

Linux has emerged as a market driven innovative alternative to UNIX. Although derived from the UNIX base code, the Linux kernel is implemented independently of both BSD and System V. The continuing development takes place over a global Internet community. The Linux kernel is used in the leading Linux-variant operating systems: Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu. Free and commercial applications and tools are available for the Linux operating system. Commercial software companies design and code the Linux kernel, GNU, KDE, and other software that runs on the Linux operating system. Over the past decade, Linux deployments have to a significant degree been replacing UNIX in system infrastructure software.

UNIX and Linux Server Operating Systems

The UNIX operating system gained acceptance in commercial use based upon high reliability and price/performance advantages; it was not the availability of applications. Ultimately, this led to broad adoption of RISC/UNIX systems. Both ewlett-Packard and IBM arrived at the decision to develop and extend a UNIX-variant operating systems for utilization on their own proprietary hardware platforms. Sun Microsystems developed Solaris-UNIX to run on both its SPARC hardware and other types of hardware, including x86 servers and PCs. POSIX was developed to provide standardization across the UNIX-variants. IBM Corporation's strategy extended its mainframe computing strengths in security and always-on availability and makes extensive use of both UNIX and Linux. Improvements in performance and energy efficiency aside, the most significant change with the IBM mainframe hardware is data center integration. This design provides for blending tasks and parceling out parts of a complex application. The data and transaction is managed on the mainframe with the real-time processing performed by a UNIX or Linux computer system.

All versions of UNIX combined - IBM AIX, HP-UX, and Oracle Solaris have approximately 10% of the market share. Marketing studies indicate that IBM's AIX UNIX is currently the most reliable and highest rated server operating system. In 2010, the Linux market share represented approximately 30% of the installed base and it has been increasing. Linux overall reliability has improved substantially. The three leading distributions, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux, and Ubuntu Linux, score high in reliability and have achieved near parity with UNIX distributions.  There is far less disparity in the number and severity of unplanned outages and actual downtime that organization's experience on standard UNIX, Linux, and MS Windows platforms. 1

Most organizations utilize commercial distributions in combination with free no cost distributions of Linux.

Linux in the Mainstream

The selection and utilization of the Linux operating system has resulted from 1- reliable code, 2- low cost, 3- enhancements to the x86 server, workstation, and laptop hardware. Linux has become a mainstream solution for supporting deployments of business-critical workloads and business-oriented applications across a variety of hardware architectures. The initial Linux operating system incrementally replaced the infrastructure workloads being performed by UNIX or MS Windows servers. Linux has a substantial and growing use as a base platform for servers, database, middleware, and web application services.

Operational infrastructure and client support requirements have led to implementations of Linux by leading hardware and software companies such as Amazon, eBay, Google, Motorola, and Twitter. These companies are also investing in Linux to develop cloud computing operations. Dell and Hewlett-Packard market Linux-based desktop and laptop computers. Hewlett-Packard also has invested in HP-Linux and open-sourced its Linux-based webOS mobile operating system. Application software providers and ISV: Independent Software Vendorís support the Linux platform and promote deployment.

Market studies project a steady growth for Linux; it is being driven by the reliability of Linux-variant server and workstation operating system code, data center virtualization, cloud computing operations, and software which allows Linux to run Microsoft applications. The shift in workloads to Linux operating system deployments will continue.

Microsoft Software: Competition and Integration

Microsoft has been in a longstanding competition for migrating UNIX to its MS Windows Server and Windows family operating systems. The Microsoft UNIX migration readily can be applied to migrating Linux-variant operating systems. Microsoft has extended the featureset of the Windows family operating system, Windows Server 2012/2016/2019 (planned), SharePoint Server, and PowerShell for integration with the leading Linux-variants: Red Hat, SUSE, and Ubuntu. SUSE has been designated by Microsoft as its preferred Linux-variant. Linux administrators can use MS Windows Server Group Policy to expedite deployments and patch installations on SUSE and other Linux-variant operating systems.

Microsoft is a platinum member of the Linux Foundation and supports Linux operating system variants and open source software. There is MS SQL Server for the Linux operating system and its MS Azure cloud platform makes extensive use of Linux-variants in hypervisors and containerization.

Google Android and Chrome Operating Systems

The immense growth of mobile computing devices - smartphones and tablets also is driving the adoption of the Linux operating system. Alphabet/Google Corporation has brought to market two Linux-based operating systems: Android and Chrome. The Google strategy is based upon the assumption that the operating systems address different markets: Android for mobile computing devices and Chrome for software as a service, cloud computing, and the education marketing.

Google acquired the Android operating system from Android, Inc. It is a Linux-variant operating system for use on mobile computing devices; it is a major component in the Google Corporation strategy to provide a unified mobile world. Android is open source software and has been made available to third party smartphone hardware manufacturers. This approach has served to make Android the leading operating system for smartphones at the low to middle range of the market. Android also has been adopted as the base platform for specialized Amazon and Barnes and Noble tablet devices and e-readers. In 2011, Google acquired Motorola Mobility, a maker of Android smartphones and tablets. This provides Google with the patents and capability to emulate portions of the Apple business model by designing its own models and integrating the software with the firmware. Its goal has been to compete with the Apple iPhone and iPad with improved Android smartphones and tablets. Derived from the OS X operating system used on Apple computers, iOS is a UNIX mobile operating system used on iPhone and iPad devices.

The Chrome operating system has been developed from a version of Ubuntu-Linux by Google. The target audience for Chrome is computer users spending most of their time on the Internet. Its functionality has Internet applications and web apps executing through a web browser. Google executives have suggested that over time the two systems will likely converge. However, the two operating systems have been built from different code bases. Despite the growing convergence of the devices, this issue has become problematic as new hardware is brought to market.

UNIX and Linux Training by SYS-ED

SYS-ED knows UNIX and Linux. And equally as important, we know how to teach UNIX and Linux. Our consultants were among the original cadre of UNIX proponents and practitioners.2  We developed and taught C programs to a generation of programmers, were involved with the superset of functions which became C++, and wrote handouts and instructor guides for X Windows and Motif interfaces.

SYS-ED teaches:

  • Scripting in UNIX- and Linux- variant platforms.
  • UNIX and Linux programming and utilities courses for application developers: C, Bourne Shell, and Korn Shell.
  • Migration from a Microsoft operating system and UNIX operating systems to Linux.
  • Oracle database, WebLogic Server, and Java application development on UNIX-Solaris and Linux-variant operating systems.
  • Db2 and IBM MQ on both UNIX- and Linux-variant base operating system platforms in IBM mainframe and distributed environments.
  • Linux in conjunction with Google Android and cross platform web app development.

Students learn by doing: installation, configuration, administration, problem resolution, and scripting. After a course is over, students are welcome to ask questions which come up back on the job. Specialized courses and integrated programs can be conducted on-site at the client location. In conjunction with presenting an instructor-led course at the client location, courseware is organized for future use in a web-based infrastructure and delivery medium.

SYS-ED will not accept a UNIX or Linux training assignment without a consultation with the prospective client organization. The background of the employees to be trained, operating environment, documented standards, and project specifications are examined to select the code snippets, examples, skeleton programs, and machine exercises. And when not confident that a superior training outcome can be provided, SYS-ED politely will turn down an assignment.

New courses are being developed for teaching Linux as a base platform with open source software and component in virtualization and cloud computing infrastructure.

Textbooks and Courseware for Teaching

A combination of textbooks and courseware are used in SYS-ED courses in conjunction with training aids, industry-specific examples, exercises,and case studies.

Web-based Training Services
UNIX - Solaris
UNIX Programming

Textbook Extensions
Training Aids
SYS-ED Schedule and Content Delivery Selection
Web-based Training Services Courseware Library Selection of Delivery Medium

The consensus is that the documentation provided with open source software does not provide quality and completeness comparable to commercial software. In order to address this shortcoming, CETi  download and reviews information in the public domain distributed by purveyors of open source software, international standards committees, and software companies. Subject matter selectively is incorporated into student handouts.

UNIX and Linux-variant Operating Systems

UNIX-variant Operating Systems

  Apple Corporation  
  Mac OSX  
  Oracle Corporation  
  Solaris - UNIX  
  IBM Corporation  
  z/OS System Services  
  OpenBSD Project  
  HP Enterprise  
  HP Inc.  
  Free BSD Project  

Most UNIX operating systems are a complete operating system with the code, applications, and utilities provided by a single source or vendor; there is a commercial license with contractual requirements, charges, and restrictions. There are indications that changes may be occurring with the UNIX software model; OpenSolaris UNIX is available free of charge. The Open Group manages the UNIX trademark licensing program.

IBM AIX, Hewlett-Packard HP-UX, and Oracle Sun Solaris are the leading UNIX operating systems; each has hardware platforms. IBM and Oracle UNIX operating systems were designed for integration with product line strategies. There are significant differences in the kernel, configuration, process management, virtualization, performance, and tuning. From an operational standpoint, there can be a degree of hardware vendor lock-in associated with the UNIX operating system.

A firewall is not a standard inclusion in the UNIX operating system; it may be necessary to purchase third party software. Generic UNIX tools used for backing up the system portion of data will not work on Linux distributions. UNIX and Linux have different sets of tools for backing up data to tape and other backup media. Although there are common tools used in both operating systems, problems have been reported when using generic UNIX/Linux utilities such as tar and cpio between different platforms. Both UNIX and Linux provide a system initialization script; however, they are located in different directories.

Linux-variant Operating Systems

  Micro Focus / Attachmate  
  SUSE Linux  
  SUSE Linux Enterprise  
  Google Corporation  
  Android Operating System  
  Chrome Operating System  
  Canonical Ltd.  
  Ubuntu Linux Desktop  
  Ubuntu Linux Server  
  AWS: Amazon Web Services  
  Intel and Others  
  Tizen - Linux-variant  
  Red Hat, Inc.  
  Red Hat Linux  
  CentOs Project  
  CentOS Linux  
  BarnesandNoble.com Inc.  

The Linux kernel and operating system has been built upon and coded from the UNIX architecture and code base. It was written by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a dispersed team of programmers. Developed based upon open source principles, Linux provides modularity and independence from a commercial software vendor for an organizational enterprise to establish and manage its own operating system deployment and patches.

Linux distributions include a: 1- GUI: graphical user interface system 2- GNU utilities cp, mv, ls, date, bash, etc. 3- Installation and management tools 4- GNU C/C++ compilers 5- Editors (vi) 6- A variety of applications such as Firefox web browser and OpenOffice suite. Linux is available for download free of charge; it also is selectively redistributed under a GNU: General Public License. Linux comes with a open source netfilter/iptables based firewall tool for protecting a server and desktop. The independence of the Linux kernel and its inclusion in the GNU General Public License provides flexibility and alternative Linux-variant base operating system choices for implementation into an existing software infrastructure. Linux can be installed on x-86 desktop and servers, HP Itanium, X64 AMD Opteron-based systems, Sun Ultra SPARC, and IBM Power and mainframe systems.

There is significant free and commercial fee-based community support for the leading Linux-variant distributions: Red Hat and Fedora Linux, SUSE Linux - Micro Focus and Attachmate Companies, Ubuntu Linux - Canonical, and Android mobile device operating system - Google.

SYS-ED offers a subset of its UNIX and Linux courses in a web-based learning format. The distance-learning training service is an extension of the SYS-ED schedule, inclusive of courseware and training aids. A distance-learning course is 65% lecture with review questions, examples, workshops, and website support services.

UNIX and Linux Distance-learning Training Services

Enrollment requires a consultation with the manager sending the employee for the training. The prospective trainee needs to be qualified for the course and service transmission to the client location tested: bandwidth, firewall, base operating system, software requirements, web browser, and set up of machine exercises. Not all UNIX and Linux courses are well suited for delivery in a web-based delivery medium. SYS-ED reserves the right to deny enrollment in its courses.

SYS-ED has been conducting courses in the public domain since 1980; however, there have been changes in the laws and regulations governing computer training in the state of New York.The schedule on our websites reflects a projected time frame for licensure with the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision and submission and approval of curriculum.

UNIX and Linux Training Programs

SYS-EDís UNIX and Linux training programs provide the knowledge and skillset to perform specific tasks.

Linux and UNIX Training Services Utilize open source graphical shells and free open source and low cost alternatives to Microsoft Office: StarOffice, OpenOffice, LibreOffice Suite, and Google G Suite - formerly Google Apps.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Install, configure, and manage scalable web server and infrastructure environments: database, middleware, cloud, and Big Data.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Migrate from UNIX to Linux operating system platforms.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Administration and scripting of tasks with the leading shells - Bourne, Korn, bash, awk, perl, c, tcsh, and MS PowerShell.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Open source application frameworks with a variety of markup and programming languages - JavaScript, PHP, Python, ASP.Net, Java, XML, and others - that can be used with database and development platforms.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Application developers with the fundamental skills and experience to develop UNIX and Linux applications with C/C++ and API's for mobile devices.
Linux and UNIX Training Services Implement and manage virtualization and containerization in the cloud.

The training programs reflect an independent use of commercial and open source software and research of open source projects and standards.

Linux Training Programs IT Demographics - Emerging Trends UNIX Training Programs
Red Hat Linux Web Servers - Scalability
UNIX- and Linux- variants
Internetworking Microsoft, Linux, and UNIX
Migration: Oracle Solaris to Red Hat Linux
Cloud Computing IaaS and PaaS
UNIX and Linux Fundamentals
SUSE Linux UNIX and Linux Scripting and Programming
Ubuntu Linux UNIX Operations and Network Administration - Solaris
Containerization - Linux and Microsoft UNIX Application Development
Mobile Device Platform Development IBM UNIX - System Services and AIX

Course modules from a Linux-variant training program can be substituted or augmented with subject matter topics from the course search engine.

Specialized Training - Linux-variant Platform:
Web Servers, Database, and Programming

Web Server Platforms - Strategic Software

These course titles and subject matter incorporate research and application development from SYS-ED staff and CETi technology partners.

Web Servers and Development Platforms
Apache Web Server IBM WebSphere Application Server IBM WebSphere MQ Oracle Application Server Oracle WebLogic Server

Database Platforms
IBM Db2 Microsoft SQL Server MySQL Oracle SAP - Sybase

Web App Development
Google - Android Application Development HTML5 for Mobile Devices jQuery Mobile OData SDK Sencha Touch

UNIX and Linux Training Services

UNIX and Linux Courses
SYS-ED's UNIX and Linux training is for Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, healthcare providers, software houses, and consulting companies to meet their staffing requirements and acquire specialized skillsets. 2

SYS-ED's UNIX and Linux courseware library contains examples, training aids, sample programs, and exercises specific to a UNIX and Linux platform: AIX, Solaris, Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, and Ubuntu.

Teaching is Our Business
Most computer training companies are divisions of large software or consulting companies. Not SYS-ED. Our only goal is to provide UNIX and Linux training for motivated professionals. This independence allows us to concentrate on teaching.

Our Teachers Know How to Teach
SYS-ED instructors combine teaching skills with experience in the UNIX and Linux operating system environments - network administration, web servers, scripting databases, middleware, and programming. After a course, they are available to answer questions.

Enrollment - SYS-ED UNIX and Linux Courses are Not for Everyone
No one is allowed to enroll in a SYS-ED UNIX and Linux course without a consultation. We review the operational objectives and project specifications for the organization evaluating whether to send its employee for the training. The employee only is allowed to enroll if they have the background corresponding to the UNIX- and Linux-variant course.

UNIX and Linux Training Distance-learning or at Your Office
SYS-ED UNIX and Linux courses are provided over the Internet through a distance-learning medium or classroom instruction. Client location courses can include the same workshops and case studies as the SYS-ED schedule.

Technology Exchange Websites

SYS-ED's websites compile, organize, and present software specific and established operational categorizations of information technology. They provide a framework for assessing knowledge transfer: web-based training, classroom instruction, courseware, learning paths, and validation assessment.


Footnote 1:
Source - Yankee Group Global Server Operating System Reliability Surveys.

Footnote 2:
SYS-EDís core UNIX curriculum has been submitted to the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision for review.